Indian Academy of Sciences was founded in 1934 by Sir C.V. Raman, Nobel Laureate. Its objectives include promoting the progress and upholding the cause of science, both in pure and applied branches. The Academy recognizes the special relationship of scientific creative activity with the process of education and holds that the course of discovery includes the identification and nurturing of scientific talent amongst the young.

In 1994, the Academy brought out a document on University Science Education containing several recommendations. The Council of the Academy then set up a Science Education Panel to organize a variety of programmes for teachers and students of science all over India, and to bring them into beneficial contacts with the Fellowship of the Academy.

Starting in the mid-1990s, the Indian Academy of Sciences had initiated several activities for the benefit of students and teachers of science all over the country. These included (a) Summer Research Fellowships for students and teachers to work with Fellows of the academy and other faculty in the country; (b) Refresher Courses of two-week duration for teachers; (c) Lecture Workshops of 2 or 3 days duration for students and teachers; (d) Inviting teachers to attend the Mid-Year and Annual Meetings of the Academy.

Indian Academy of Sciences also started the publication of a monthly journal of science education – Resonance in January 1996. Now in its second decade of publication, Resonance carries articles in all areas of science and engineering. This journal is primarily directed at students and teachers at the undergraduate level, though some of the articles may go beyond this range.

In January 2007, the Indian National Science Academy (New Delhi) and The National Academy of Sciences, India (Allahabad) joined with this Academy in conducting three of the programmes viz Summer Research Fellowships, Refresher Courses, and Lecture Workshops.